Step by Step Mastering in English – Lesson 3 : PRONOUN

By | September 11, 2023

Step by Step Mastering in English – Lesson 3 : PRONOUN

PRONOUN

Pronouns are an essential component of grammar, providing clarity and efficiency in communication. They help avoid redundancy by replacing nouns, making sentences more concise and coherent. In this article, we will explore the basics of pronoun grammar and delve into some of the more complex aspects using H2H1, an approach that highlights the importance of human-to-human (H2H) communication.

Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns in sentences. They simplify language and help maintain fluency in conversations.
The primary pronouns include:

  1. Personal Pronouns:Personal pronouns represent specific individuals or groups of people. They can be singular or plural and vary based on gender and formality.
    • Singular: He, She, It (for objects or animals)
    • Plural: They (used for both people and objects)
  2. Possessive Pronouns:These pronouns indicate ownership or possession. Common possessive pronouns include:
    • His, Her, Its, Their
  3. Reflexive Pronouns:Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of the sentence. They often end in “-self” or “-selves” and are used to emphasize that the subject performs the action on itself.
    • Himself, Herself, Itself, Themselves
  4. Demonstrative Pronouns:Demonstrative pronouns point to specific nouns in a sentence. Common demonstrative pronouns are:
    • This, That, These, Those
  5. Interrogative Pronouns:Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. They include:
    • Who, Whom, Whose, What, Which
  6. Relative Pronouns:Relative pronouns introduce dependent clauses in sentences. They include:
    • Who, Whom, Whose, Which, That
  7. Indefinite Pronouns:Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person or thing. Some examples are:
    • Someone, Anyone, Nobody, Everything, Anything

Personal Pronoun :

Here’s a table that includes personal pronouns in various forms: subject, object, possessive 1, possessive 2, and reflexive.

 

Person Subject Object Possessive 1 Possessive 2 Reflexive
First I Me My Mine Myself
Second You You Your Yours Yourself
Third He/She/It Him/Her/It His/Her/Its His/Hers/Its Himself/Herself/Itself
First We Us Our Ours Ourselves
Second You You Your Yours Yourselves
Third They Them Their Theirs Themselves

 

For example :

  1. First Person Singular
    • Subject: I am going to the store.
    • Object: Please give the book to me.
    • Possessive 1: This is my
    • Possessive 2: The car is mine.
    • Reflexive: I can do it myself.
  2. Second Person Singular/Plural
    • Subject: You are my best friend.
    • Object: I need to talk to you.
    • Possessive 1: Is this your phone?
    • Possessive 2: The phone is yours.
    • Reflexive: Be sure to take care of yourself.
  3. Third Person Singular – Masculine
    • Subject: He is playing soccer.
    • Object: I saw him at the park.
    • Possessive 1: This is his
    • Possessive 2: The hat is his.
    • Reflexive: He can fix the car himself.
  4. Third Person Singular – Feminine
    • Subject: She loves to read.
    • Object: I admire her
    • Possessive 1: This is her
    • Possessive 2: The laptop is hers.
    • Reflexive: She did the project all by herself.
  5. Third Person Singular – Neutral (for inanimate objects or animals)
    • Subject: It is raining outside.
    • Object: I heard a noise; I think it was the wind.
    • Possessive 1: This is its
    • Possessive 2: The color is its.
    • Reflexive: The robot can perform tasks by itself.
  6. First Person Plural
    • Subject: We are going on a trip.
    • Object: Come with us to the party.
    • Possessive 1: These are our
    • Possessive 2: The books are ours.
    • Reflexive: Let’s enjoy the vacation by ourselves.
  7. Second Person Plural
    • Subject: You all are invited.
    • Object: I want to meet all of you.
    • Possessive 1: Are these your keys?
    • Possessive 2: The keys are yours.
    • Reflexive: Make sure to take care of yourselves.
  8. Third Person Plural
    • Subject: They won the game.
    • Object: I congratulated them on their success.
    • Possessive 1: These are their
    • Possessive 2: The dogs are theirs.
    • Reflexive: They organized the event by themselves.

Indefinite Pronoun :

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to any specific person, thing, or amount. Instead, it refers to non-specific or unknown people, things, or quantities in a general way. Indefinite pronouns are often used when the speaker or writer wants to be vague or when they don’t have specific information about what they are referring to. Here are some common examples of indefinite pronouns:

  1. Some: “Some” is used to refer to an unspecified quantity or number of people or things.
    • Example: “I have some books to read.”
  2. Any: “Any” is used to refer to one or more items from a group or a non-specific choice.
    • Example: “Do you have any questions?”
  3. None: “None” indicates the absence of something or no quantity or number.
    • Example: “I have none left.”
  4. All: “All” refers to the whole or entire quantity or group.
    • Example: “All the students passed the exam.”
  5. Many: “Many” suggests a large or unspecified number.
    • Example: “Many people attended the concert.”
  6. Few: “Few” indicates a small or limited number.
    • Example: “There are few options available.”
  7. Several: “Several” refers to an unspecified but more than a few number.
    • Example: “She has several interests.”
  8. Someone: “Someone” is used to refer to an unidentified person.
    • Example: “Someone is knocking on the door.”
  9. Everyone: “Everyone” refers to all individuals in a group.
    • Example: “Everyone enjoyed the party.”
  10. Nobody: “Nobody” means no person or not anyone.
    • Example: “Nobody likes to be ignored.”
  11. Everything: “Everything” denotes all things or the whole of something.
    • Example: “She wanted to pack everything for the trip.”
  12. Anything: “Anything” refers to any one or more things, without specifying.
    • Example: “You can choose anything from the menu.”
  13. Nothing: “Nothing” indicates the absence of anything.
    • Example: “There’s nothing in the fridge.”

Indefinite pronouns are versatile in that they can be used to make sentences less specific or more general, depending on the context and the writer’s or speaker’s intent.

 

Agreement with Collective Noun

Agreement with collective nouns can sometimes be a bit tricky in English because they can take either singular or plural verbs and pronouns depending on the context and the intended emphasis. Collective nouns refer to groups of people, animals, or things as a single unit. Whether you use a singular or plural verb or pronoun depends on whether you want to emphasize the group as a whole or the individual members within the group.

Here are some examples to illustrate the concept:

  1. Singular Agreement:
    • The team is playing exceptionally well this season.
      • In this case, “the team” is treated as a single unit, so the singular verb “is” is used. It emphasizes the team as a whole.
  1. Plural Agreement:
    • The team are arguing among themselves.
      • Here, the focus is on the individual members of the team, so “are” is used to indicate that they are not in agreement.
  1. Singular vs. Plural Pronouns:
    • The family went on vacation. It had a great time.
      • In this example, “the family” is treated as a single unit, so the singular pronoun “it” is used to refer back to it.
    • The family are arguing, but they will resolve their issues.
      • In this case, the focus shifts to the individual family members, so “they” is used to refer to them.
  1. Singular vs. Plural Adjectives:
    • The herd of cattle is moving slowly.
      • “Herd” is a collective noun, so the singular adjective “slowly” is used to describe the movement of the whole group.
    • The herd of cattle are various colors.
      • Here, the adjective “various” indicates that we are considering the individual cattle within the herd, so “are” is used.

In summary, the choice between singular and plural agreement with collective nouns depends on whether you want to emphasize the group as a single entity (singular) or the individual members within the group (plural). Consider the context and your intended emphasis when deciding whether to use singular or plural verbs, pronouns, or adjectives with collective nouns.

 

Reflexsive Pronoun

Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that are used when the subject of a sentence is also the object of the action. They are called “reflexive” because they reflect the action back onto the subject. In English, reflexive pronouns are typically formed by adding “-self” or “-selves” to a personal pronoun, depending on the person (singular or plural).

Here are the reflexive pronouns in English:

 

Singular Pronoun
Myself Ourselves
Yourself Yourselves
Herself, Himself, itself, oneself Themselves

 

Here are some examples to illustrate the use of reflexive pronouns:

  1. I cut myself while chopping vegetables.
    • In this sentence, “I” is the subject, and “myself” is the reflexive pronoun because the subject and object are the same person.
  2. She always does her hair herself.
    • “She” is the subject, “her” is the possessive pronoun, and “herself” is the reflexive pronoun, indicating that she does her own hair.
  3. We should be able to solve this problem ourselves.
    • In this case, “We” is the subject, and “ourselves” is the reflexive pronoun, emphasizing that the group (we) will solve the problem independently.
  4. They blame themselves for the mistake.
    • “They” is the subject, and “themselves” is the reflexive pronoun, indicating that they are taking responsibility for the mistake.
  5. You need to believe in yourself.
    • In this sentence, “You” is the subject, and “yourself” is the reflexive pronoun, emphasizing the importance of self-belief.
  6. The cat can groom itself quite efficiently.
    • “The cat” is the subject, and “itself” is the reflexive pronoun, showing that the cat is capable of grooming on its own.

In summary, reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence are the same entity, and they help emphasize actions or situations where individuals or groups are doing something to or for themselves.

 

The Usage of the Pronouns “you,” “one,” and “they”

  1. You:“You” is a second-person pronoun used to address one or more people directly. It can refer to individuals or groups and can be both singular and plural.Examples:
  • Singular: You are a talented musician.
  • Plural: You are all invited to the party.
  • Singular (informal): You should take care of yourself.
  • Plural (informal): You can sit anywhere you like.
  1. One:“One” is a third-person pronoun used to generalize or speak in a more formal, impersonal way. It is often used to refer to people in a generic sense, without specifying a particular individual.Examples:
  • One should always strive for self-improvement.
  • If one studies hard, one can achieve success.
  • When traveling, one should be prepared for unexpected delays.
  1. They:“They” is a third-person pronoun used to refer to one or more people or things when the gender is not specified, or when referring to a group of people in a gender-neutral or non-binary way. It can also be used when the gender of the individual(s) is unknown.Examples:
  • They are going to the movies tonight. (Referring to a group of people)
  • When the doctor arrives, please let them know about your symptoms. (Gender-neutral)
  • I met someone new, but I don’t know much about them (Gender unknown)In summary:
  • “You” is a second-person pronoun used for direct addressing, whether singular or plural, and can be both formal and informal.
  • “One” is a third-person pronoun used for a more generic, formal, or impersonal style of speech.
  • “They” is a third-person pronoun used to refer to people or things in a gender-neutral or non-binary way, or when the gender is unspecified or unknown.

The choice between these pronouns depends on the context and the level of formality you want to convey in your communication.

 

Used of Pronoun of “other”

The pronoun “other” is often used to refer to something or someone different or additional in relation to something previously mentioned or understood. It is a versatile pronoun that can be used to compare, contrast, or emphasize differences between things or people. Here are some common uses of the pronoun “other” with examples:

  1. Comparative Use:”Other” is frequently used to compare one thing or person to another, indicating that they are different from each other.Examples:
  • I prefer the red shirt over the other (Here, “other” is used to distinguish between two shirts, emphasizing their difference.)
  • John’s car is faster than the other cars in the race. (In this case, “other” is used to compare John’s car to the rest of the cars in the race.)
  1. Alternative Use:”Other” can be used to present an alternative or additional option.Examples:
  • If you don’t like this flavor, we have many other flavors to choose from. (Here, “other” suggests there are alternative flavors available.)
  • You can take this route or explore other routes to get to your destination. (Indicating that there are different routes to choose from.)
  1. Emphasizing Differences:”Other” can emphasize a contrast or difference between one thing or group and another.Examples:
  • The first book was good, but the other one was outstanding. (Emphasizing the difference in quality between the two books.)
  • Some people prefer coffee, while others prefer tea. (Highlighting the contrast between coffee and tea preferences.)
  1. General Reference:”Other” can be used as a general reference when the specific alternatives are not mentioned.Examples:
  • I have some books, and I’ll bring other things as well. (Referring to unspecified items in addition to books.)
  • She is busy with work and other (Referring to unspecified responsibilities besides work.)

In summary, the pronoun “other” is used to indicate differences, alternatives, or additional items or people in relation to something previously mentioned or understood. Its usage can help clarify distinctions and provide context in various types of sentences.

 

Used of Pronoun of “another”

The pronoun “another” is used to refer to an additional person or thing of the same type or category as one previously mentioned. It implies a similar or equivalent item but not the same one. Here are some examples of how “another” can be used in sentences:

  1. I ate one piece of cake, and then I had another.
    • In this sentence, “another” is used to refer to a second piece of cake, not the same piece as the first.
  2. She finished one book and immediately started reading another.
    • Here, “another” is used to indicate a different book, not the one she just finished.
  3. I need another pencil; this one is out of lead.
    • “Another” in this context refers to a different pencil, not the same one that is out of lead.
  4. He’s had one job interview today and has scheduled another for tomorrow.
    • In this sentence, “another” refers to a different job interview happening on a different day.
  5. I have one idea for the project, and I’ll come up with another soon.
    • “Another” is used to suggest the creation of a different idea, distinct from the one already mentioned.
  6. She bought one shirt, but she’s thinking of getting another in a different color.
    • Here, “another” indicates a similar shirt, but in a different color.

In these examples, “another” is used to introduce an additional or different item or person of the same category or type as the one previously mentioned. It helps to avoid repetition and adds variety to the language.

 

Used of Pronoun of “each other”,  “one another”,  every other”
and  “the other + time”

These phrases involving pronouns are used to refer to different forms of reciprocal or specific relationships between people, things, or time periods. Here are explanations and examples for each:

  1. Each Other:
    • Usage: “Each other” is used to show a reciprocal relationship or action between two entities.
    • Example: John and Mary love each other deeply. (This means John loves Mary, and Mary loves John.)
  2. One Another:
    • Usage: “One another” is also used to describe reciprocal relationships or actions, but it can involve more than two entities.
    • Example: The team members support one another. (This means all team members support each other.)
  3. Every Other:
    • Usage: “Every other” is used to refer to alternate items or occurrences in a sequence.
    • Example: I meet with my friend every other Friday. (This means I meet my friend on alternate Fridays, not every Friday.)
  4. The Other + Time:
    • Usage: “The other” followed by a specific time period refers to the opposite or the remaining part of a given time frame.
    • Example: I have to work late this Monday and have the day off the other Monday. (This means not the upcoming Monday but the one following it.)

These phrases are used to provide clarity and specificity in language, especially when discussing relationships, time, or sequences of events.

 

Used of Pronoun of “one after the other” and “one after another”

The phrases “one after the other” and “one after another” are similar in meaning, but they are used in slightly different contexts.

  1. One After the Other:
    • Usage: “One after the other” is used to describe a sequence or order in which things or events occur consecutively, with little or no interruption.
    • Example: The cars were parked one after the other in a neat row. (This means the cars were parked consecutively, with each car following the previous one in a line.)
  2. One After Another:
    • Usage: “One after another” is also used to describe a sequence or order, but it may imply a bit more spacing or time between the occurrences.
    • Example: The students went up to the front of the class one after another to receive their awards. (This suggests that there was a short pause or slight delay between each student going up to receive their award, but they still followed one another in order.)

In general, the distinction between these phrases is subtle, and they are often used interchangeably. The choice between “one after the other” and “one after another” depends on the specific context and the degree of continuity or spacing you want to convey in the sequence.

 

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